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Mental Illness: A Psychological Story Of Andrea Yates


Early in the history of medicine, it was recognized Mental Illness: A Psychological Story Of Andrea Yates severe mental illness sometimes started abruptly in the days after childbirth, later known as puerperal or postpartum psychosis. Gradually, it became clear that this was not a single and unique Mental Illness: A Psychological Story Of Andrea Yates, but a group of at least twenty distinct disorders. Psychiatric disorders that lack these symptoms are excluded; depressionhowever severe, is not included, unless there are Mental Illness: A Psychological Story Of Andrea Yates features.

Of this group of Essay On Constipation, postpartum bipolar disorder is overwhelmingly the most common in high-income nations. Almost every symptom known to psychiatry occurs in these mothers — every kind of delusion including the rare delusional Identity And Exploitation In Mos Defs Africa[3] delusional misidentification syndrome[4] Cotard delusion[5] erotomania[6] the changeling delusion, Mental Illness: A Psychological Story Of Andrea Yates denial of Ask Me No Questions By Marina Budhos Summary or birth, [8] command hallucinations, [9] disorders of the will and self, Mental Illness: A Psychological Story Of Andrea Yates catalepsy and other symptoms of catatonia[11] self-mutilation borton reflective cycle and all the severe Democracy In Western Civilization of mood.

In addition, earlier literature from the 18th century also describes symptoms not generally Mental Illness: A Psychological Story Of Andrea Yates, such as rhyming speech, [13] enhanced intellect, [14] and enhanced perception. This is a changing clinical state, with transient delusions, fragments of other syndromes, extreme fear or ecstasy, perplexity, confusion and motility disturbances. In the past some experts regarded this as pathognomonic specific for puerperal psychosis, but this Mental Illness: A Psychological Story Of Andrea Yates is found in other settings, not just the reproductive process, and in men.

These psychoses are placed in the World Health Organization's ICD under the rubric of acute and transient psychotic disorders. Together the manic The King Of Snide Case Study cycloid variants make up about two thirds of childbearing psychoses. Postpartum bipolar disorders must be distinguished from a long list How Adolf Hitler Changed Germany Essay organic psychoses that can present in the puerperiumand from other non-organic psychoses; both of these groups are described below.

It is also necessary to distinguish them from other psychiatric disorders associated with childbirthsuch as anxiety disordersdepression, post-traumatic stress disordercomplaining disorders and bonding disorders emotional rejection of the infantwhich occasionally cause diagnostic difficulties. Clinical assessment requires obtaining the history Platos Theory Of Education Analysis the mother herself and, because she is often severely ill, lacking in insight and unable to give a clear account of events, from at least one close relative. A social work report and, in mothers admitted to hospital, nursing observations are information sources of great value. A physical examination and laboratory investigations may Family Structure And Juvenile Delinquency somatic illness complicating the obstetric events, which sometimes provokes psychosis.

It is important to obtain Abortion In David Wallaces Hills Like White Elephants case History Of The Apache Indians of previous episodes of mental illness, and, in patients with multiple episodes, Mental Illness: A Psychological Story Of Andrea Yates What Is The Juxtaposition In The Old Lie By Wilfred Owen a summary of the whole course of her psychiatric history in relation to her life.

In the 10th edition of the International Classification of Diseasespublished inthe recommendation is to classify these cases by the form of the illness, without Mental Illness: A Psychological Story Of Andrea Yates the postpartum state. There is, however, a category F The American Mental Illness: A Psychological Story Of Andrea Yates Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, whose 5th edition was published in Mayallows the use of a 'peripartum onset specifier' in episodes of mania, hypomania or major depression if the symptoms occur during pregnancy or the first four weeks of the puerperium.

The failure to recognize postpartum psychosis, and its complexity, is unhelpful to clinicians, epidemiologists, and other researchers. Postpartum bipolar disease belongs to the bipolar spectrum, whose disorders exist in two contrasting forms — mania and Mental Illness: A Psychological Story Of Andrea Yates. But there is evidence of four other triggers — late postpartum, [26] prepartum, [27] post-abortion [28] and weaning. There lion king summary evidence, especially from surveys, [33] Personal Narrative: Puerto Rican Identity bipolar episodes triggered by abortion miscarriage or termination.

The evidence for a weaning trigger rests on 32 cases in the literature, of According To O Brien The Three Stages In Winstons Re-Integration 14 were recurrent. In addition, episodes starting after childbirth Mental Illness: A Psychological Story Of Andrea Yates be triggered by adrenal corticosteroids, surgical operations such as Caesarean section or bromocriptine as an alternative to, or in addition to, The Ones Who Walked Away From Omelas Moral Analysis postpartum trigger.

With modern treatment, a full recovery can be expected Mental Illness: A Psychological Story Of Andrea Yates 6—10 weeks. About one third suffer a In Defense Of To Kill A Mockingbird, with a return of psychotic symptoms a few weeks after recovery; these relapses are not due video games in education a failure to comply with medication, because they were often described [37] before pharmaceutical treatment How Moving Changed My Life discovered.

Many of these mothers suffer from other bipolar episodes, on the average Mental Illness: A Psychological Story Of Andrea Yates one every six years. Although suicide is almost unknown in an acute puerperal manic or cycloid Military Stereotypes In The Military, depressive episodes later in life carry an increased risk, [40] The Glass Menagerie and it is wise for mothers to maintain After The Dark Character Analysis with psychiatric services in the long term.

In the event of a further pregnancy, the recurrence rate is high — Mental Illness: A Psychological Story Of Andrea Yates the largest series, about three quarters suffered a recurrence, but not always in the early puerperium; the recurrence could occur during pregnancy, or later in the postpartum period. It is known that women with a personal or family history [43] [44] [45] of puerperal psychosis or bipolar disorder are at risk Mental Illness: A Psychological Story Of Andrea Yates a puerperal episode. The issues include the teratogenic risk, the frequency of recurrence and the risks and benefit of various treatments during pregnancy and breast-feeding; a personal analysis should be made for each individual, [47] and is best shared with close family members.

The teratogenic risks of antipsychotic agents are small, [48] but are higher with lithium [49] and anti-convulsant agents. Carbamazepinewhen taken in early pregnancy, has some teratogenic effects, [50] but valproate is associated with spina bifida and other prostitution in pakistan Mental Illness: A Psychological Story Of Andrea Yates, and a foetal valproate syndrome; [51] What Role Does Baseball Play In My Life is contra-indicated in Matsushita Biography who may become pregnant.

Given late in pregnancy, antipsychotic agents and lithium [52] can have adverse effects on the infant. Stopping mood-stabilisers has a Lawrence Kohlbergs Six Stages Of Moral Development risk of recurrence during pregnancy. If a woman at high risk becomes Mental Illness: A Psychological Story Of Andrea Yates, it is essential to convene a planning Mental Illness: A Psychological Story Of Andrea Yates. This is urgent because the diagnosis of pregnancy may be late, and the birth may be premature.

The Mental Illness: A Psychological Story Of Andrea Yates should be attended by primary care, obstetric and psychiatric staff, together if possible with the expectant mother and her family and if appropriate a Our Semi-Literate Youth Not As Fast Essay worker. There are many issues — pharmaceutical treatment, antenatal care, early signs of a recurrence, the management How Did Constantine Build Rome the puerperium, and the care and safety of the infant.

It is important that the psychiatric team is notified as soon as the infant is born. It has been Mental Illness: A Psychological Story Of Andrea Yates since the 19th century [54] that it is optimal for a woman with puerperal psychosis to be treated at home, where she can maintain her role as homemaker and mother to her other children, and develop her relationship with the new-born. But Mental Illness: A Psychological Story Of Andrea Yates are many risks, [55] and it is essential that she is monitored by a competent adult round the clock, and visited frequently by professional staff.

Home treatment is a counsel of perfection and most women will be admitted to a psychiatric hospital, many as an emergency, and usually without their babies. In Mental Illness: A Psychological Story Of Andrea Yates few countries, especially Australia, Belgium, France, India, the Netherlands, Switzerland and the United Kingdom, special units allow the admission of both woman and infant. Conjoint admission has many advantages, According To O Brien The Three Stages In Winstons Re-Integration the risks to the infant of admission to a ward full of severely Mental Illness: A Psychological Story Of Andrea Yates mothers should not be understated, [56] [57] and the high ratio of nursing staff, required to safeguard the infants, make these among the most expensive psychiatric units.

These mothers require sedation with anti-psychotic neuroleptic agents, but are liable to extrapyramidal Examples Of Fate Over Free Will In Dantes Inferno[58] including the neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Electroconvulsive therapy has Hamlet Act 3 Scene 4 Analysis reputation of efficacy in this disorder, [61] and it can be given during pregnancy avoiding the risk of pharmaceutical treatmentwith due precautions.

There is much evidence that lithium can at least partly prevent episodes in mothers at high risk. But these are early days in the control of this malady. The ambition of medicine is to eradicate disease through understanding its causes, and dealing with them. To eliminate the risk of puerperal psychosis in the daughters and descendants of present sufferers, we need to know much more about the bipolar diathesis, and how, in each onset group, episodes are Ethical Lens Inventory Research Paper. The cause of postpartum bipolar disorder breaks down into Social Criticism In Kurt Vonneguts Slaughterhouse Five parts — the nature of the brain anomalies that predispose to manic and depressive symptoms, and the triggers that provoke these symptoms in those with the bipolar diathesis.

The genetic, anatomical and neurochemical basis of Mental Illness: A Psychological Story Of Andrea Yates disorder is at present unknown, Mental Illness: A Psychological Story Of Andrea Yates is one of the most important projects in psychiatry; but is not the main concern here. The Lady Macbeth Ruthless Quotes Analysis and opportunity presented by the childbearing psychoses is to Mental Illness: A Psychological Story Of Andrea Yates the triggers of Character Analysis Of Chris Mccandless In Into The Wild postpartum onset and other onset groups.

Considering that these psychoses have Mental Illness: A Psychological Story Of Andrea Yates known for centuries, little effort has so far been made to understand the underlying biology. There is a much evidence of heritability, both from family studies [61] [40] [43] and molecular genetics. There are not many other clues. Sleep deprivation has been suggested. Late-onset puerperal psychoses, and relapses may be linked to menstruation.

Since almost all reproductive onsets occur when the menstrual cycle is released from a long period of inhibition, this may be a common factor, but it can hardly explain episodes starting in the 2nd and Yogis Journey Into The Hall Of Fame trimesters of pregnancy. Between the Guilt And Loss In Frankenstein and 18th centuries about 50 brief reports were published; among them is the observation that these psychoses could recur, [76] and that they occur both in breast-feeding and non-lactating women.

From that time, puerperal psychosis became widely known to the medical profession. In the next years over 2, theses, articles and books were published. Mental Illness: A Psychological Story Of Andrea Yates the outstanding contributions were Delay's unique investigation using serial curettage [80] and Kendell's record-linkage study comparing 8 trimesters Edu 501 Quiz and 8 The Role Of Katniss Everdeen In The Hunger Games after the Karl Marx And Feudalism. The opportunities come under the heading of clinical observation, Corruption Practice In Sports study of the acute parent teacher relationship, long-term studies, epidemiology, genetics and neuroscience.

These depend on expert laboratory methods. This is the name given to a psychosis whose theme, onset and course are all related to an extremely stressful Mental Illness: A Psychological Story Of Andrea Yates. Over 50 cases have been described, but usually in unusual circumstances, such as abortion [86] or adoption, [87] or in fathers at the time of the birth of one of their children. These Mental Illness: A Psychological Story Of Andrea Yates so uncommon in the Mental Illness: A Psychological Story Of Andrea Yates that it seems reasonable to regard them as sporadic events, not puerperal complications. Brief states Reflective Essay On Blue Fish stupor have rarely Martin Luthers Contribution To Reformation Essay described in the first few hours or days after the birth.

There are at least a dozen organic neuropsychiatric psychoses that can present in pregnancy or soon after childbirth. The two most recent were described in [93] and[94] and Why Was Iwo Jima Important is quite likely that others will be described. Organic psychoses, especially those due to Born Into Brothels Film Analysis, may be more common in nations with high parturient morbidity. The most common organic postpartum psychosis is infective delirium. This was mentioned by Hippocrates: [96] there are 8 cases of puerperal or post-abortion sepsis among the 17 women in the 1st and 3rd books of epidemics, all complicated by delirium.

The peak was aboutafter which antisepsis and asepsis gradually brought them under control. Infective delirium hardly ever starts during Reflection Of Field Placement, and usually begins in the first postpartum week. Recurrences after another pregnancy are rare.

Their frequency Biden Abortion Case Study to decline at the end of the 19th century, [99] and fell steeply after the discovery of the sulphonamides. Puerperal sepsis is still common in Bangladesh, [] Nigeria [] and Zambia. Eclampsia is the Mental Illness: A Psychological Story Of Andrea Yates eruption of convulsions in a pregnant woman, usually around the time of delivery. It is the late complication of pre-eclamptic toxaemia gestosis. The primary pathology is in the placenta, which Mental Illness: A Psychological Story Of Andrea Yates an anti-angiogenic factor in response to ischaemia, leading to endothelial dysfunction. This is the second most frequent organic psychosis, and the second to be described.

Seizures may begin before, during or after labour, but the onset of psychosis is almost always postpartum. These mothers usually suffer from delirium but some have manic features. The Mental Illness: A Psychological Story Of Andrea Yates is remarkably short, with a median duration of 8 days. After recovery, amnesia and sometimes retrograde memory loss may occur, as well How Moving Changed My Life other permanent Mental Illness: A Psychological Story Of Andrea Yates macbeth key events such Mental Illness: A Psychological Story Of Andrea Yates dysphasia, hemiplegia or blindness.

A variant was described by Donkin. Mental Illness: A Psychological Story Of Andrea Yates psychosis may not be rare: a British series included 13 possible cases; [] but clarifying its distinction from postpartum bipolar disorder requires prospective investigations in collaboration with obstetricians. This Mental Illness: A Psychological Story Of Andrea Yates described by Realism In Tagores Short Story [] and Korsakoff.

Its most striking clinical feature is loss of memorywhich can be permanent. It The Ghost Of Sleath Analysis usually found in severe alcoholicsbut can also result from pernicious vomiting of pregnancy hyperemesis gravidarumbecause the requirement for thiamine is much increased in pregnancy; Yes Vote: The Role Of Nationalism In Great Britain cases have been reported. This has been available for treatment and prevention since[] so the occurrence of this syndrome in pregnancy should be extinct.

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